Friday, June 29, 2012

Common definitions and explanations of the Sensor and Relay on the electrical system

Relay is a switch that is controlled by the current. Relay has a low-voltage coil is wound on a core. There is an iron armature core when it is pulled towards the current flowing through the coil. Armature is mounted on a spring-loaded task. When the armature is attracted to, contact with the track will change the position of the contacts are normally closed to normally open contacts.
A relay of this type can be activated in about 10 ms. Most of modern relay is placed in a package that is fully sealed. Most of them have the kind of SPDT contacts (sliding switch), but there are also several versions of DPDT (double-pole, double throw or double-pole, two-way). Relays that can connect the larger currents up to 10 A at a voltage of 250 V AC. The maximum DC voltage for switching is always much lower, often only half, of the maximum voltage to AC. There are also miniature relays.

Sometimes we have to use a transistor circuit for controlling a high power device. Such devices may require a larger current or voltage that is higher than what is handled by a power transistor. Or maybe have to switch the AC current, which is a matter beyond the capability of the transistor. In situations of this kind requires the user to use the relay.
The sensor used is a thermistor. This component controls a FET switch circuit, which in turn serves as a switch to a relay circuit. Cognac - relay contacts to control a space heater powered by electricity from the source.

As is the case in almost all series of switches, the first stage of this circuit is a voltage divider. A variable resistor used to set the temperature values ​​are used as the trigger point. There is no resistor between voltage divider with FET gate terminal.
When the temperature falls, R2 will increase resistance, resulting voltage at the wiper VR1 increased. Q1 becomes active when this voltage exceeds the threshold voltage. Current flows through Q1 and the relay coil (RL). D1 serves as a protective diode. Serves as a relay switch that connect and disconnect the electricity of a chain of separate power, used his contacts are normally open. When current flows through the coil of the relay, the relay contacts are normally open to close. Heating circuit will be connected to the power circuit and the heater will turn on. Heater will light up the room temperature reaches a predetermined value.

Light emitting diode, the which is more known as LEDs, Produce light when current flows through it. Led initially only made ​​in red, but now the color of orange, yellow, green, blue, and white are also available on the market. There are also infrared LEDs That Produce.  

Requires about 20 mA LED current to emit light with maximum brightness, although the currents as small as 5 mA was still Able to Produce visible light. LED forward voltage drop an average of 1.5 V, so the supply voltage of 2 V can turn most of the LEDs with maximum brightness. With higher voltage levels, LED forward voltage can be burned if given more than 2 V, and crucial limiting resistor connected in series to the flow of a LED.

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

What is the effect of a layered core emits alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma particles?

Each element has one or more isotopes are unstable nucleus will experience radioactive decay, causing the release core particles or electromagnetic radiation. Radioactivity can occur when the core radius is very large compared to the radius of the strong force (only works at distances of about 1 femtometer). Forms of radioactive decay is the most common are:
Alpha Decay
Image from Wikipedia
When an atom emits an alpha particle in alpha decay, the atom's mass number decreases by four due to the loss of the four nucleons in the alpha particle. The atomic number of the atom goes down by exactly two, as a result of the loss of two protons – the atom becomes a new element. Examples of this sort of nuclear transmutation are when uranium becomes thorium, or radium becomes radon gas, due to alpha decay. Alpha particles are commonly emitted by all of the larger radioactive nuclei such as uranium, thorium, actinium, and radium, as well as the transuranic elements. Unlike other types of decay, alpha decay as a process must have a minimum-size atomic nucleus that can support it.The process of emitting an alpha sometimes leaves the nucleus in an excited state, with the emission of a gamma ray removing the excess energy.(

Beta Decay
In the beta decay of particles, there are three ways that will be passed to the event are:
Image from Wikipedia

β decay (electron emission). An unstable atomic nucleus with an excess of neutrons may undergo β− decay, where a neutron is converted into a proton, an electron and an electron-type antineutrino (the antiparticle of the neutrino)

β+ decay (positron emission). Unstable atomic nuclei with an excess of protons may undergo β+ decay, also called positron decay, where a proton is converted into a neutron, a positron and an electron-type neutrino.

Interaction with other matter. Of the three common types of radiation given off by radioactive materials, alpha, beta and gamma, beta has the medium penetrating power and the medium ionising power. Although the beta particles given off by different radioactive materials vary in energy, most beta particles can be stopped by a few millimeters of aluminium. Being composed of charged particles, beta radiation is more strongly ionising than gamma radiation. When passing through matter, a beta particle is decelerated by electromagnetic interactions and may give off bremsstrahlung x-rays. (

Gamma Decay/ Gamma Radiation
Image from Wikipedia
Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays or hyphenated as gamma-rays and denoted as γ, is electromagnetic radiation of high frequency and therefore energy. Gamma rays are ionizing radiation and are thus biologically hazardous. Gamma rays are classically produced by the decay from high energy states of atomic nuclei (gamma decay), but also in many other ways. Natural sources of gamma rays on Earth include gamma decay from naturally-occurring radioisotopes such as potassium-40, and also as a secondary radiation from various atmospheric interactions with cosmic ray particles. Some rare terrestrial natural sources that produce gamma rays that are not of a nuclear origin, are lightning strikes and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, which produce high energy emissions from natural high-energy voltages.

Gamma rays from radioactive gamma decay are produced alongside other forms of radiation such as alpha or beta, and are produced after the other types of decay occur. The mechanism is that when a nucleus emits an α or β particle, the daughter nucleus is usually left in an excited state. It can then move to a lower energy state by emitting a gamma ray, in much the same way that an atomic electron can jump to a lower energy state by emitting a photon.Gamma decay from excited states may also follow nuclear reactions such as neutron capture, nuclear fission, or nuclear fusion. (

when the nucleus emits an alpha particle, it loses two protons and two neutrons. When the atomic nucleus emits beta particles, neutrons to protons changes. When the atomic nuclei emit gamma rays that reconfigure the core, itself into a high state of energy.
All radioactive elements will decay within a certain period, the decay of the light it emits alpha, beta, and gamma in order to achieve a stable level or state. For example:



Saturday, June 23, 2012

Some terms used in the disciplines of Politics, Government, and Law.

In studying the discipline of political science then we need to understand the terms used in the art. Terms in political science are the parts of government, laws and power. So, many people who studied political science tend to have a confusion regarding the terms or words that are not often spoken every day. There are so many words or terms that I would write this article, of course, this also comes from the book / reference that I took. Here are some terms which will be continue.

A.B.C. Powers. Refer to a partnership / Entente between the three countries in the American south. Namely, Argentina, Brazil and Chile are formed at the beginning of the twentieth century. Entente (the term co-operation) is growing and developing of the agreements between the three countries in the matter of arbitration or other issues, the talk of the years 1899 to 1905. Measures and diplomatic talks in the years to further strengthen the Entente, for later in 1915 a peace agreement and the issue of arbitration agreed by the three countries. That effort culminated in 1914, when U.S. President Woodrow Wilson asked for the three nations to mediate problems between the United States with Mexico.

ABDACOM. The word is an abbreviation of the American British Dutch, Australian Command. Which is a military command established by the United States to face attacks by the Japanese in Southeast Asia and East Asia in 1942.

Abdication. In general, the meaning of this word is a verb that meant resignation. However, in the sense of political science is usually used to indicate the resignation of a supreme ruler of the country. This means that abdication is only addressed to the supreme authority in a STATE. The resignation could be done voluntarily, as the case experienced by queen Christina of Sweden which released in 1654 by the crown because he wanted to embrace the Roman-Catholic religion. But besides that the resignation of a supreme ruler can also occur because of forced circumstances, such as the failure of the authorities to control the government so it was forced to step down and relinquish power and position.

Abolition. Is the right to prohibit a punishment that will be imposed on a person before a decision handed down by a judge. In Indonesia, as in other countries that a republic, the right of pardon was granted to the President.

Abolisionist. The word refers to the term used to refer to someone who opposes the practice of slavery. This term began to grow and is very popular during the civil war, and is used to refer to particular individuals or groups who fight for the emancipation of slaves in America. Then the term is more widespread and is also used to refer to the freedom fighters in Africa, Latin America and the rest of the world who opposed slavery.

Thursday, June 21, 2012

Hadits Kedua dalam ajaran Islam

Arti Hadits:
Dari Umar radhiyallahu `anhu juga dia berkata: Ketika kami duduk-duduk disisi Rasullullah shallahu`alaihi wa sallam suatu hari tiba-tiba datanglah seorang laki-laki yang mengenakan baju yang sangat putih dan berambut sangat hitam, tidak tampak padanya bekas-bekas perjalanan jauh dan tidak ada seorangpun di antara kami yang mengenalnya. Hingga kemudian dia duduk di hadapan Nabi lalu menempelkan kedua lututnya kepada lututnya Rasullullah shallahu `alaihi wa sallam seraya berkata, "Ya Muhammad, beritahukan aku tentang Islam?", Maka bersabdalah Rasullulah shallahu`alaihi wa sallam: "Islam adalah engkau bersaksi bahwa tidak ada ilah (tuhan yang disembah) selain Allah, dan bahwa Nabi Muhammad adalah utusan Allah, engkau mendirikan shalat, menunaikan zakat, puasa Ramadhan dan pergi haji jika mampu", kemudian dia berkata, "anda benar". Kami semua heran, dia yang bertanya dia pula yang membenarkan. Kemudian dia bertanya lagi: "Beritahukan aku tentang Iman". Lalu beliau bersabda, "Engkau beriman kepada Allah, malaikat-malaikat-Nya, kitab-kitab-Nya, rasul-rasul-Nya dan hari akhir dan engkau beriman kepada takdir yang baik maupun yang buruk", kemudian dia berkata "anda benar". Kemudian dia berkata lagi: "Beritahukan aku tentang ihsan". Lalu beliau bersabda, "Ihsan adalah engkau beribadah kepada Allah seakan-akan engkau melihatnya, jika engkau tidak melihatnya maka Dia melihat engkau". Kemudian dia berkata, "Beritahukan aku tentang hari kiamat (kapan kejadiannya)". Beliau bersabda, "Yang ditanya tidak lebih tahu dari yang bertana". Dia berkata, "Beritahukan aku tentang tanda-tandanya", beliau bersabda, "Jika seorang hamba melahirkan tuannya dan jika engkau melihat seorang bertelanjang kaki dan dada, miskin lagi penggembala domba, (kemudian) orang itu berlalu dan aku berdiam sebentar. Kemudian beliau (Rasulullah shallahu`alaihi wa sallam) bertanya, " Tahukan engkau siapa yang bertanya?". Aku berkata, " Allah dan Rasul-Nya lebih mengetahui". Beliau bersabda, "Dia adalah Jibril yang datang kepada kalian (bermaksud) mengajarkan agama kalian". (Riwayat Muslim)
Hadits di atas menggambarkan bagaimana sebuah ajaran islam itu diajarkan dengan metode-metode yang mudah tetapi tidak bisa dibuat mudah. Ada beberapa aturan-aturan yang harus dipahami dan diikuti dalam prosesnya. Secara umum, hadits di atas memberikan kita pembelajaran mengenai rukun islam dan rukun iman.

Hadits ini merupakan hadits yang sangat dalam maknanya, karena didalamnya terdapat pokok-pokok ajaran Islam, yaitu Iman, Islam dan Ihsan. Hadits ini mengandung makna yang sangat agung karena bersal dari dua makhluk Allah yang terpercaya, yaitu: Amiinussamaa' (kepercayaan makhluk di langit/ Jibril) dan Amiinul Ardh (kepercayaan makhluk di bumi/ Rasulullah shallahu`alaihi wa sallam).

Kandungan Hadits:
  • Disunnahkan untuk memperhatikan kondisi pakaian, penampilan dan kebersihan, khususnya jika menghadapi ulama, orang-orang mulia dan penguasa.
  • Siapa yang menghadiri majlis ilmu dan menangkap bahwa orang-orang yang hadir butuh untuk mengetahui suatu masalah dan tidak ada seorangpun yang bertanya, maka wajib baginya bertanya tentang hal tersebut meskipun dia mengetahuinya agar peserta yang hadir dapat mengambil manfaat darinya.
  • Jika seseorang yang ditanya tentang sesuatu maka tidak ada cela baginya untuk berkata, "Saya tidak tahu", dan hal tersebut tidak mengurangi kedudukannya.  
  • Kemungkinan malaikat tampil dalam wujud manusia.
  • Termasuk tanda hari kiamat adalah banyaknya pembangkangan terhadap kedua orang tua. Sehingga anak-anak memperlakukan kedua orang tuanya sebagaimana seorang tuan memperlakukan hamba-sahayanya.
  • Tidak disukainya mendirikan bangunan yang tinggi dan membaguskannya selama tidak dibutuhkan.
  • Di dalamnya terdapat dalil bahwa perkara ghaib tidak ada yang mengetahuinya selain Allah ta`ala.
  • Di dalamnya terdapat keterangan tentang adab dan cara duduk dalam majlis ilmu.
Hadits di atas secara umum memberikan ajaran-ajaran islam yang diawali dengan: 
  1. Iman kepada Allah
  2. Iman kepada Malaikat-Malaikat-Nya
  3. Iman kepada Kitab-Kitab-Nya
  4. Iman kepada Rasul-Rasul-Nya
  5. Iman kepada Hari Akhir
  6. Iman kepada Takdir yang baik maupun yang buruk
dan apabila mengimani hal tersebut maka sudah merupakan titik awal pembelajaran Islam dan melaksanakan perintah dari Allah yaitu
  1. Bersyahadat
  2. Mendirikan Shalat
  3. Menunaikan Zakat
  4. Puasa di Bulan Ramadhan
  5. Pergi Haji bagi yang mampu
Kandungan Hadits di atas dapat juga di jumpai di dalam Alquran:

Iman. Terdapat pada Surah Al Baqarah Ayat ke 285, Surah Al Maaidah Ayat ke 5 dan Surah Al An`aam ayat ke 82 serta masih banyak lagi.
Islam. Tedapat pada Surah Al Baqarah Ayat ke 112, Surah An Nisaa' Ayat ke 125, Surah Al Jin ayat ke 14, Surah Al Mu`min Ayat ke 66, Surah Ali `Imran ayat ke 19 dan Surah Al Maaidah Ayat ke 3.
Ihsan. Terdapat pada Surah Al Kahfi ayat ke 30, Surah Al Qashash Ayat ke 77, Surah Al Israa' Ayat ke 7, Surah Al Maaidah Ayat ke 5.
Hari Akhir. Surah Al A`raaf Ayat ke 187, Surah Al Hajj Ayat ke 7, dan Surah Luqman Ayat ke 34.
Ilmu Ghaib/ Allah. Surah Al Baqarah Ayat ke 3, Surah An Naml Ayat ke 65, Surah Al An`aam Ayat ke 50, Surah Al A`raaf Ayat ke 188.
Belajar dan Mengajarkan Islam. Surah An Nahl Ayat ke 43, Surah Al Anbiyaa' Ayat ke 7, Surah Ali `Imran Ayat ke 79, Surah At Taubah Ayat ke 122.

Referensi : 
Hadits Arba`in Nawawiyah karya Imam Abu Zakaria Yahya Bin Asyraf An-Nawawi
(Penerjemah Abdullah Haidhir dan Murajaah Dr. Muh. Mu`inudinillah Bashri dan Maerwandi Tarmizi)

Sunday, June 17, 2012

Several factors that affect plant growth and development

Plants (flora) is a unit in a living ecosystem. Plants are also part of what is called a living creature. Of course, as living beings, plants have characteristics similar to other living creatures. As with the growth and development. The process of growth and development experienced by plants in order to process a higher level. Of course, the process is also influenced by several factors relating directly or indirectly. Here are some of the processes that affect plant growth and development:

Internal factors
In influencing the development and growth in plants, internal factors related to genetic and physiological factors include the plant. Both of these factors can be described in more deeply because it contains a variety of circumstances.
  • Genetic factorsGrowth and development process starts from the germination process. This process begins with water uptake (inhibition). Water is then absorbed into the body resulting in dissolution of pieces of food that is in pieces of the institution. Besides dissolving food, absorb water also serves as a substance-induced lawyer for hydrolytic enzymes. After that the enzyme will be controlled by the genes of plants. Germination process also requires that the metabolic processes of plants can live. This metabolic process requiring metabolic enzymes support that aims to regulate the metabolic rate of growth and development of plants that can be set to be optimal. And it's all arranged by the genes of plants.
  • Physiologcal factors. Of origin of the word, physiological factors are factors derived from the functional processes at the cellular level in plants. All activities conducted by plant cells also affect the process of development and growth in plants. Growth and development will involve a variety of hormones and vitamins. Hormones and vitamins have specific functions at each level of growth and development. Hormones that affect growth and development are as follows Hormone auxin, gibberellin, ethylene, cytokinins, absisat acid, Kalin, traumalin acid, antokalin, filokalin, rhyzokalin and kaukokalin, addition of hormones, vitamins also affect growth and development. Examples are vitamin riboflavin, ascorbic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, and nicotinic acid. Vitamins serve as components that are capable of activating the enzyme.
External factors 
External factors have an influence equal to the internal factors in the growth and development. In the process, external factors are factors that are outside the parts of a plant, an existing environment around the plant. These external factors that affect plant growth and development.
  • Temperature. When it comes to temperature, it will not be separated from the process of photosynthesis, respiration, and evaporation in plants. Temperature affects the water content in plants that is one thing that is important in the growth and development. Temperature also affects the performance of enzymes that exist in plants. In general, temperatures will damage important parts of the plant when the temperature is high, so if too low will make the important parts do not work optimally or even not working. Optimal temperatures in plants is also different. So, temperature is the most important factor in the first category of external factors.
  • Sunshine. Sun light affects green plants because sunlight will determine the photosynthesis process of plants. Photosynthesis is the fundamental process in plants to produce energy that will be used as the initial capital in the growth and development. Besides, in the process of photosynthesis, sunlight also affect plant growth physically. Plants that grow in the dark will grow faster but with the condition of pale, thin, and its leaves do not grow because of the hormone auxin is not spread and are not optimal.
  • Water, pH, and oxygen. Water serves to determine the rate of photosynthesis, as the universal solvent in the process of growth and development, to determine the transport of nutrients in the soil and distribute the results to all parts of plant photosynthesis. Factor pH (or acidity) that directly affect the state of soil acidity. Minerals and nutrients derived from land, when the soil has a high acidity, it is mostly absorbed acidic compounds. So that the acid compound is absorbed so high, it is very disrupting the growth and development. Oxygen is a limiting factor in any organism. These conditions make the organisms need oxygen. Parts of plant roots require good aeration to get oxygen. Good aeration to improve root respiration process to circulate nutrients in the soil to the leaves.
  • Nutrition. Plants need nutrients for its survival. Nutrients needed in large quantities such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. These elements are referred to as the mean macronutrient nutrients needed by plants in large numbers. In contrast, elements such as chlorine, iron, boron, manganese, zinc, copper, and molybdenum merupakn micronutrient elements, which means the elements needed in small amounts. Nutrients needed for plants not deficient, that is to grow and develop imperfectly. 

Wednesday, June 13, 2012

Basic concepts that affect the values ​​of behavioral approaches

Behavioral approach is a thought which arose in the aftermath of World War II, especially in the decade of the fifties, as a reform movement that wants to improve the quality of political science. The movement was influenced by the works of scholars such as sociologist Max Weber and Talcott Parsons, in addition to new discoveries in the field of psychology. Scholars of political science known for his approach to political behavior is Gabriel A. Almond (structural-functional analysis), David Easton (General System Analysis), Karl W. Deutsch (Communications Theory), David Truman, Robert Dahl, and so on.

One of the main ideas of the forerunners of "behavioral approach" is that the political behavior more into focus, rather than political institutions or power or political beliefs. However, the more pronounced is the appearance of a particular orientation that includes some basic concepts. Basic concepts of a people who embrace the behavioral approach can be written as follows:
  • Political behavior show that the regularity can be formulated in generalizations. 
  • Generalizations of this in principle should be substantiated by pointing to the relevant behavior. 
  • To gather and interpret data necessary techniques of careful research. 
  • To achieve the required precision in the measurement and quantification studies. 
  • In making political analysis of personal values ​​as much as possible the researchers did not play a role. 
  • Political research has an open attitude towards the concepts, theories and other social sciences. In this process of interaction with other social sciences such as for example a new term entered the political system, function, role, structure, political culture and political socialization in addition to long term as state, power, position, institute, public opinion and civic education.
In order to approach the emergence of behavior, in adults it has developed several kinds of analysis proposed new formulations of political science as a science, the position of the values ​​in the study of political and social units are about to be observed. Among the famous are functional analysis and structural-analysis-system approach.

Friday, June 8, 2012

Teknik-teknik dalam mempersiapkan sampel untuk pengujian Transmitting Electron Microsocopy

Perlu diperhatikan dalam menggunakan alat-alat penelitian ada beberapa prosedur yang harus dilaksanakan agar penggunaan alat tersebut efektif dan terhindar dari hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan, sebut saja seperti kerusakan secara tidak sengaja, kelebihan dalam penggunaan dan lain sebagainya. Bukan saja pada prosedur penggunaan alat saja yang lebih ditekankan, melainkan juga pada saat melakukan pengujian. Mari kita bahas saja alat pengujian dari mikroskop elektron. Kali ini yang akan kita diskusikan adalah mengenai teknik-teknik dalam menyiapkan sampel untuk pengujian.

Menurut wikipedia, TEM atau Transmission Electron Microscopy adalah alat yang digunakan untuk menguji atau melihat kontur permukaan sampel suatu material (baik itu padat, cair, ataupun gas). TEM dibuat menggunakan prinsip transmitted electron atau alektron yang diteruskan/ ditembakkan ke arah sampel yang sangat tipis sehingga akan terbentuk gambar permukaan sampel yang didapat dari hasil interaksi antara elektron yang diteruskan tersebut, "such as a fluorescent screen, on a layer of photographic film, or to be detected by a sensor such as a CCD camera". Gambar di hasilkan pada layar fluoroscent, film photographic atau sensor camera CCD.

Dalam menggunakan TEM, ada teknik-teknik tertentu yang harus dipersiapkan kepada sampel/ spesimen dalam rangka untuk menghasilkan pengujian atau gambar-gambar yang bagus. Berikut beberapa teknik yang saya  dapat:

Pemolesan menggunakan listrik dan kimiawi. Prinsip pemolesan ini bertujuan agar spesimen tampak lebih halus permukaannya sehingga ketika di uji pada mikroskop elektron gambar yang terbentuk akan lebih bagus sehingga penelitian dapat dipersempit ralatnya. Prinsip kerja metode ini adalah menggunakan prinsip elektrolisis.

Pemolesan secara manual mekanik. Teknik jenis ini sering kita lihat pada tukang besi yang berada di sekitar kita. Jika kita lihat para pandai besi ingin menghaluskan permukaan sampel/ spesimen mereka biasanya menggunakan grinda ataupun menggunakan kertas pasir. Namun, lebih efektif menggunakan gerinda dibandindkan menggunakan kertas pasir. 
Ion Milling dan Atom Milling. Dalam proses ini,atom-atom atau ion ditembakkan dari sumber atau lebih dikenal dengan istilah electron gun. Ion yang diemisikan biasanya menggunakan Gallium cair dan dalam menembakkan ke arah spesimen menggunakan ruang vakum dan diisikan gas mulia Argon sehingga ketika spesimen ditembakkan, ada atom-atom yang dapat ditendang keluar, dikenal dengan istilah sputtering.

Focused Ion Beam (FIB). Sinar ion terfokus (FIB) adalah sistem yang hampir sama seperti proses penembakan elektron pada SEM. Bedanya berkas elektron ditembakkan secara terpusat ke satu titik, sistem FIB menggunakan sinar ion terfokus halus (biasanya galium) yang dapat dioperasikan pada arus  rendah untuk pencitraan. Mirip dengan metode sputtering atau Milling.

Mikrotomy Ultra. Ultramicrotomy adalah metode untuk memotong spesimen menjadi irisan yang sangat tipis, yang dapat dilihat dalam mikroskop elektron transmisi (TEM). Bagian spesimen tersebut harus sangat tipis karena energi elektron yang digunakan pada mikroskop elektron standar sebesar 50-125 kV sehingga tidak dapat melewati bahan biologis yang lebih tebal dari 150 nm. Untuk resolusi terbaik, irisan harus 30 sampai 60 nm. Ini kira-kira setara dengan memecah 0,1 mm-tebal rambut manusia ke dalam 2.000 irisan sepanjang sumbu "Y", atau memotong sel darah merah tunggal menjadi 100 irisan. Ultramicrotomy adalah teknik yang menuntut kita dalam latihan dan kesabaran.

Pemecahan. Metode ini menggunakan proses yang biasa, dan hanya ditujukan pada kristal tunggal yang bersifat getas. Karena dengan menggunakan metode ini, kristal tunggal yang getas memiliki bentuk yang transparan sehingga dengan memecahkan material tersebut (secara hati-hati) maka akan dihasilkan kehalusan dan kerataan pada tingkat atomik. Dan tentu saja, pemecahan ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan bidang-bidang yang memiliki transparansi.

Wednesday, June 6, 2012

Hadits Pertama dalam ajaran Islam

Arti Hadits
Dari Amirul Mu`minin, Abi Hafs Umar bin Al Khattab radhiallahuanhu, dia berkata, "Saya mendengar Rasullullah Shallahu`alaihi wa sallam bersabda: Sesungguhnya setiap perbuatan tergantung niatnya. Dan sesungguhnya setiap orang (akan di balas berdasarkan apa yang di niatkan. Siapa yang hijrahnya karena (ingin mendapatkan keridhaan) Allah dan Rasul-Nya, maka hijrahnya kepada (keridhaan) Allah dan Rasul-Nya. Dan siapa yang hijrahnya karena menginginkan kehidupan yang layak di dunia atau karena wanita yang ingin dinikahinya maka hijrahnya (akan bernilai sebagaimana) yang dia niatkan."
Hadits di atas di riwayatkan oleh dua orang imam hadits, yaitu yang bernama Abu Abdulla Muhammad bin Isma`il bin Ibrahim bin Al Mughirah bin Bardizbah Al Bukhari dan Abu Al Husain, Muslim bin Al Hajjaj bin Muslim Al Qusyairi An Naisaaburi di dalam dua kitab Shahih, yang merupakan kitab yang paling shahih yang pernah dikarang.

Hadits di atas merupakan hadits pertama yang diberikan oleh Rasullulah Shallahu`alaihi wa sallam untuk umat islam sebagai acuan bagi kita dalam melaksanakan kewajiban sebagai umat manusia dan sebagai makhluk ciptaan Allah SWT. Secara umum hadits ini merupakan hadits yang menjadi tonggak awal dalam perjuangan islam, dan bahkan hadits di atas menjadi salah satu hadits yang menjadi inti ajaran islam.

Senada dengan hal tersebut, Imam Ahmad dan Imam Syafi`i berkata:
Dalam hadits tentang niat ini mencakup sepertiga ilmu. Sebabnya adalah bahwa perbuatan hamba terdiri dari perbuatan hati, lisan dan anggota badan, sedangkan niat merupakan salah satu bagian dari ketiga unsur tersebut.
Diriwayatkan dari Imam Syafi`i bahwa dia berkata:
Hadits ini mencakup tujuh puluh bab dalam fiqh.
Kandungan Hadits:
  • Niat merupakan syarat layak/ diterima atau tidaknya amal perbuatan, dan amal ibadah tidak akan menghasilkan pahala kecuali berdasarkan niat (karena Allah ta`ala)
  • Waktu pelaksanaan niat dilakukan pada awal ibadah dan tempatnya di hati/ qalbu
  • Ikhlas dan membebaskan niat semata-mata karena Allah ta`ala dituntut pada semua amal shaleh dan ibadah
  • Seorang mu`min akan diberi ganjaran pahala berdasarkan kadar niatnya
  • Semua perbuatan yang bermanfaat dan mubah (boleh) jika diiringi niat karena mencari keridhaan Allah maka dia akan bernilai ibadah
  • Yang membedakan antara ibadah dan adat (kebiasaan/ rutinitas) adalah niat
  • Hadits di atas menunjukkan bahwa niat merupakan bagian dari iman karena dia merupakan pekerjaan hati, dan iman menurut pemahaman Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah adalah Membenarkan dalam hati, diucapkan dengan lisan dan diamalkan dengan perbuatan
Hadits di atas secara umum memberikan penjelesan mengenai niat dalam melaksanakan aktivitas baik aktivitas secara hablum minallah ataupun hablum minannas. Hadits di atas memiliki pokok bahasan 3 pokok, yaitu:
  1. Niat dan Keikhlasan
  2. Hijrah
  3. Fitnah dunia
Dan dari ketiga pokok bahasan tersebut dapat kita jumpai di Alquran yaitu pada:

Niat dan Keikhlasan. Terdapat pada surah Al A`raaf ayat ke 29 dan surah Al Bayyinah ayat ke 5
Hijrah. Terdapat pada Surah An Nisaa` ayat ke 97, Surah Al Baqarah ayat ke 218, Surah Ali `Imran ayat ke 195 dan Surah Al Anfaal ayat ke 72
Fitnah Dunia. Terdapat pada Surah Ali `Imran ayat ke 145, Surah An Nisaa` ayat ke 134, Surah Al An`aam ayat ke 70 dan Surah Al Anfaal ayat ke 67 

Referensi : 
Hadits Arba`in Nawawiyah karya Imam Abu Zakaria Yahya Bin Asyraf An-Nawawi
(Penerjemah Abdullah Haidhir dan Murajaah Dr. Muh. Mu`inudinillah Bashri dan Maerwandi Tarmizi)

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