Thursday, August 23, 2012

General explanation of the oscillator and Oscillator Types

Image from
Oscillators are the basic components forming circuit called a clock and a timer circuit (Timing) as well as a series of generating / signal describing mathematical functions programmed into the system. Oscillator is also an electronic device that produces output with no signal voltage. In the electronic communications system oscillator can not operate without a source of sinusoidal electric wave. Many types of oscillator circuits are used to produce a sinusoidal wave, and only a few of the commonly used by many people. Wave is in Layer Cathode Ray Tube (CRT Layer) will be analyzed on the oscillator in order to illustrate the methods commonly used. Since the oscillator is one of a series of clock and has a timing properties, the oscillator can be divided into various kinds of bridge RC oscillator, wien bridge oscillator, and the oscillator T-twin. In the oscillator can be determined pr-conditions for the oscillator is a positive feedback loop and voltage gain.

In the use of oscillators, we would know the Timer IC 555 which is a fundamental component in the practice oscillator. Timer IC 555 is one of the most versatile integrated circuit chip ever produced. 555 timer IC is not just a mix of analog and digital circuits are neat, but also the application of the circuit are virtually unlimited in the world of digital pulse generation. This tool can also be an excellent case study for the newcomers in the world of electronics as a tool incorporates some of the concepts and techniques that are important. Basically, the device consists of two operational amplifiers are used as a differential comparator and RS bi-stable element. Standard 555 timer is stored in an 8-pin DIL package sources and work from the source voltage between 4.5 V and 15 V.

Oscillator is an electronic device that produces the output of the voltage signals. Shape cues voltage versus time was different, that is forms sinusoid, square, triangle, sawtooth, or pulse. Different oscillator amplifier, therefore requiring the amplifier input signals to produce output signals. In the oscillator no input signal, only the output signal only, the frequency and amplitude can be controlled. Often an amplifier accidentally generate a frequency output without input whose value can not be controlled. In this case, the amplifier is said to oscillate. Oscillator is widely used as a source of cues to test an electronic circuit. Oscillator is usually called a generating signal, or if the function generating output signal can take many different forms. Oscillator is also used on radio and television transmitters, as well as in radio communications, microwave, and optics to generate electromagnetic waves that can be boarded for information. Radio and television receivers also use the oscillator to process signals coming. This gesture came mixed with signals from a local oscillator to produce an information carrier signal with a lower frequency. This last gesture is known as a signal if (intermediate frequency).

Oscillator is also used to detect and determine the distance to the microwave (radar) or ultrasound (sonar). Furthermore almost all digital devices such as watches, digital calculators, computers, computer helper tools, and so forth using an oscillator. So, it is clear oscillator plays an important role in the electronic world. There are basically three kinds of oscillators, ie RC oscillator, LC oscillator, and relaxation oscillator. The first two signals produces sinusoidal shape whereas relaxation oscillator signal generating square, triangle, sawtooth or pulse.

RC oscillator. An oscillator with a resistance R and capacitance C to set the frequency. Signaling can be assured that the resulting sinusoidal shape. Oscillator using positive feedback that is reactive, so that the condition of the oscillator, which is only valid for a single frequency value, resulting sinusoidal output signal.

Wien bridge oscillator. An improvement than the RC oscillator as a new bridge will be covered are bridge oscillator Wien. Wien bridge oscillator can be controlled using an automatic gain control (AGC-Automatic Gain Control) in order to have a fixed amplitude versus time. One problem that arises in RC oscillator is the oscillator stability. An oscillator is said to be stable if the amplitude of the output signal continues to rise and eventually cut or depressed oscillation signal so it does not come out. Discussion of stability oscillator requires understanding of control theory, but here can be summed up by the following. If the gain is less than 3, the oscillations would off and if more than 3, the output signal will continue to grow so truncated. As a result, the output is no longer sinusoidal. 

Oscillator T-Twins. T-Twins is a series of the amplitude of the T-twin is a filter that forwards the tape seal all frequencies except within a frequency band around 1/RC. RC oscillator is used to generate a low-frequency sinusoid signal, ie below 500 KHz. RC oscillator does not use inductors, and the frequency can be changed by adjusting the resistance of a potentiometer. In this chapter we can discuss about the LC oscillator, the oscillation obtained through parallel LC circuit. LC oscillator is used to obtain a sinusoidal signal of audio frequency to radio frequency, even microwave frequencies. Hartley oscillator can be switched on and off at regular intervals by a series resistor and a capacitor, so that the oscillator can produce sounds similar to the sound of chicks. The emergence of the sound can be explained as any unfilled electric charge capacitor, the oscillator works to produce sound. Charged capacitor voltage and charge through the resistor so that the voltage at the base will rise. A transistor voltage exceeds 0.6 volts, the transistor will saturate so that the oscillation stops. At the same time a sudden change in flow will result in induced voltage L1, which will also lead to the opposite voltage L2. As a result, the positive charge the capacitor to be drawn through the second capacitor so empty. At that time the oscillator to work again to produce the sound. Thus continue to occur repeatedly. Another modification of a Hartley oscillator is used for the FM microphone.

Crystal Oscillator. In order to obtain a stable frequency people use crystal oscillator circuit. The meaning is crystal quartz crystal oscillator, the crystal of silicon dioxide. These crystals are piezoelectric. Piezoelectric properties are properties of several kinds of crystal, if the crystal is pressed, pressed between two surfaces that will arise different voltage. Conversely, if the crystal surface between two given electric potential difference will occur between the two surfaces of the mechanical stress that causes changes in the crystalline form. The nature of the resulting crystals of quartz crystal behaves as a resonant system. Curvature of the crystal resonance is very sharp, or have very high load factors (in the order of thousands). Crystal resonant frequency depends on the thickness of the crystal, and the direction of the field of cutting crystal oscillation to determine the strength and frequency of temperature changes.

Relaxation Oscillator. Shape signal released by the relaxation oscillator sinusoid formless, but may be a square, pulse, triangle, or sawtooth. Relaxation oscillator using charging and strengthening the charge on a capacitor through a resistance. A change that occurs exponentially in time called relaxation. Therefore, by charging a fixed voltage that is exponential, then the oscillator that uses this mechanism is also known as a relaxation oscillator. Relaxation oscillator can be made ​​using fluorescent lamps, single connection transistor uni junction transistor (UJT), PUT, op-amps, and transistors. Neon relaxation oscillator can be used as a small fluorescent lamps are often used in pen-test or panel lights. Fluorescent lamps containing neon gas at very low pressure. Above a certain voltage neon lights and neon lamp resistance becomes very small. This occurs because the neon lights are caused by the ionization of neon gas between two poles. UJT oscillator. UJT or Uni Junction transistor is an active component that is widely used to produce a pulse signal. These pulses are used to control the instrumentation. UJT widely used to set the SCR and the Triac, the semiconductor component that functions as tiration using pulses generated by the base current UJT. Schmitt Trigger oscillator using a hysteresis in the transfer function Schmitt trigger.

Multivibrator. There are many instances where we need the square wave output of an oscillator instead of sine wave output. Multivibrator is a type of oscillator circuit that generates an output waveform consists of one or more square pulses. The name "multivibrator" stems from the fact that such a waveform is rich in harmonics, namely 'plural Vibrations' / 'Multiple vibrations'. Multivibrator using regenerative feedback (positive), the active devices in the oscillator circuit works as a switch, alternately experiencing cut-off and saturation. The main types of multivibrator is:
  • Stable multivibrator which provides a continuous circuit pulses (the device is sometimes referred to as a free-running multivibrator).
  • Monostable multivibrator which produces a single output pulse (the device has a stable condition and is therefore referred to as a series of one-shot).
  • Bi-stable multivibrator has two stable condition and requires a trigger pulse or a control signal to change from one condition to the other conditions.
Electronic communication system can not operate without electricity sinusoidal wave source. Many types of circuit used to produce sinusoidal oscillator, and only a few of the commonly used will be analyzed, in order to illustrate the general method.

Another LC oscillator.
Colpitts oscillator is the most widely used LC oscillator. The capacitive voltage division resonant circuit is the right way to develop a voltage feedback. But many other types of oscillator can also be used.

  1. Komunikasi Elektronika by Chairman Jakarta: Rineka Cipta
  2. Rangkaian Elektronika by Sutanto Jakarta :Universitas Indonesia
  3. Elektronika Teori Dasar dan Penerapannya by Sutrisno Bandung :ITB



Saturday, August 18, 2012

Variabel dan Fungsi sebagai Pemahaman Mendasar Kalkulus

Pada pembahasaan aljabar dalam bidang matematika, kita akan menemukan symbol-simbol yang berhimpitan dengan angka sehingga membentuk sebuah susunan dengan sistem matematika yang dikenal dengan fungsi matematika. Dalam aturannya, pemahaman teorema aljabar membutuhkan sebuah pengertian dan pemahaman pemecahan persoalan yang mendasar dalam sistem matematik yang ada. Variabel dan fungsi yang merupakan kata kunci dalam penyelesaian persoalan tersebut atau pengembangan sistem tersebut. Oleh Karena itu, perlu kita garis bawahi bahwa pemahaman mengenai variable yang ada sangat dibutuhkan sehingga nantinya akan mendukung kita dalam memcahkan dan membuat fungsi-fungsi matematika.

Kumpulan bilangan real. Dalam situsnya wikipedia menuliskan "bilangan riil atau bilangan real menyatakan bilangan yang bisa dituliskan dalam bentuk desimal, seperti 2,4871773339… atau 3.25678" Kumpulan bilangan real terdiri atas bilangan rasional dan bilangan irrasional. Bilangan rasional terdiri atas bilangan bulat positif, bilangan bulat negative, bilangan nol dan bilangan pecahan a/b dengan nilai a dan b bulat. Pada bilangan irrasional adalah bilangan dengan decimal yang tak ada hentinya seperti akar 2 dan nilai phi.

Harga Mutlak/ Absolut. Harga absolut [n] dari bilangan real n didefenisikan sebagai:
  1. [n] = n jika n nol atau bilangan positif
  2. [n] = -n jikan n adalah bilangan negatif

Skala Bilangan. Skala bilangan merupakan penampilan khusus secara grafik dari bilangan-bilangan real oleh titik-titik pada sebuah garis lurus. Setiap bilangan dinyatakan oleh satu titik, dan sebaliknya sebuah titik hanya mewakili sebuah bilangan.

Interval Hingga dan Tak berhingga/ Finite dan Infinite.
Ketika dua bilangan real, sebut saja a dan b dengan sistem a<b. Kumpulan semua bilangan yang ada di antara a dan b disebut dengan rentang nilai atau interval buka dari a ke b dan ditulis sebagai a<x<b. Dengan x merupakan rentang nilai/ interval dari kumpulan angka diantara a dan b. Sebuah interval buka di atas nilai a dan b tidak ikut karena hanya menjadi batas saja. Sedangkan sebuah interval yang bilangan pada batasnya disertai disebut interval tertutup dan ditulis sebagai .

Untuk interval tak berhingga/ infinite, mari kita ambil bilangan a yang merupakan sebuah bilangan real. Kumpulan semua bilangan x yang memenuhi x < a disebut interval tak hingga karena tidak memiliki batas akhir. Interval tak hingga lainnya didefenisikan sebagai x > a atau   .

Konstanta dan Variabel. Dalam pengertian a < x < b;
  • Setiap simbol a dan b merupakan bilangan yang disebut dengan konstanta
  • Simbol x mewakili seberang elemen (anggota) dari kumpulan bilangan-bilangan dan disebut sebagai variabel x.
Pertidaksamaan. Pernyataan seperti a < b, a > b, dan sebagainya disebut dengan pertidaksamaan. Ketentuannya sebagai berikut:
  1. a > 0 jika dan hanya jika a bernilai positif
  2. a < 0 jika dan hanya jika a bernilai negatif
  3. a > 0 jika dan hanya jika -a < 0
  4. a < 0 jika dan hanya jika -a > 0
  5. Jika a < b dan b < c, maka a < c
  6. JIka a < b maka a + c < b + c , jika c adalah bilangan real
  7. Jika a < b dan c < d, maka a + c < b + d
  8. Jika a < b dan c bilangan positif, maka ac < bc
  9. Jika a < b dan c bilangan negatif, maka ac > bc
  10. Jika 0 < a < b dan 0 < c < d , maka ac < bd
-- TEOREMA: [x] < a jika dan hanya jika -a < x < a dimana a > 0
Fungsi dari sebuah variabel. Sebuah variabel y disebut fungsi dari variabel lain x jika terdapat suatu hubungan sehingga untuk setiap harga x dalam daerahnya dapat ditentukan satu nilai y. Variabel x disebut sebagai variabel bebas, sedangkan y disebut sebagai variabel tidak bebas karena nilainya ditentukan oleh pilihan nilai x.
Simbol f (x) di baca " f fungsi x " atau "fungsi dari x" digunakan untuk menyatakan fungsi dari x. Jika dalam soal yang sama dijumpai fungsi lain dari x maka digunakan notasi lain sebagai berikut:
g(x), h(x), F(x), G(x) 
Dalam mempelajari fungsi y = f(x) perlu diketahui daerah dari variabel bebas x juga disebut sebagai "domain" yang menentukan dari fungsi.
  • Fungsi f(x) dikatakan tertentu dalam suatu interval jika dapat ditentukan untuk setiap nilai x dari interval tersebut
  • Jika f(x) adalah fungsi dari x dan jika a dalam domain yang menentukan maka dengan f(a) diartikan sebuah bilangan yang diperoleh dari f(x) dengan menggantikan x oleh a

  • Wikipedia
  • Schaum`s Series Mathematics for Engineering

Sunday, August 12, 2012

Hadits Keenam dalam Ajaran Islam

Arti Hadits:
Dari Abu Abdillah Nu`man bin Basyir radhiallahuanhu dia berkata,Saya mendengar Rasulullah shallallahu`alaihi wa sallam bersabda, "sesungguhnya yang halal itu jelas dan yang haram itu jelas. Di antara keduanya terdapat perkara-perkara yang syubhat (samar-samar) yang tidak diketahui oleh orang banyak. Maka siapa yang takut terhadap syubhat berarti dia telah menyelamatkan agamanya dan kehormatannya. Dan siapa yang terjerumus dalam perkara syubhat, maka akan terjerumus dalam perkara yang diharamkan. Sebagaimana penggembala yang mengembalakan hewan gembalaannya di sekitar (ladang) yang dilarang untuk memasukinya, maka lambat laun dia akan memasukinya. Ketahuilah bahwa setiap raja memiliki larangan dan larangan Allah adalah apa yang Dia haramkan. Ketahuilah bahwa dalam diri ini terdapat segumpal daging, jika dia baik maka baiklah seluruh tubuh ini dan jika dia buruk, maka buruklah seluruh tubuh; ketahuilah bahwa dia adalah hati". (Riwayat Bukhari dan Muslim)
Hadits ini merupakan salah satu landasan pokok dalam syari'at. Abu Daud berkata: Islam itu berkisar pada empat hadits, kemudian dia menyebutkan hadits ini salah satunya.

Kandungan Hadits:
  • Termasuk sikap Wara' (sikap yang timbul dari rasa takutnya seseorang terhadap perbuatan haram) adalah meninggalkan syubhat.
  • Banyak melakukan syubhat akan mengantarkan seseorang kepada perbuatan haram.
  • Menjauhkan perbuatan dosa kecil karena hal tersebut dapat menyeret seseorang kepada perbuatan dosa besar.
  • Memberikan perhatian terhadap masalah hati karena padanya terdapat kebaikan fisik.
  • Baiknya amal perbuatan anggota badan merupakan pertanda baiknya hati.
  • Pertanda ketakwaan seseorang jika dia meninggalkan perkara-perkara yang diperbolehkan karena khawatir akan terjerumus kepada hal-hal yang diharamkan.
  • Menutup pintu terhadap peluang-peluang perbuatan haram serta haramnya sarana dan cara ke arah sana.
  • Hati-hati dalam masalah agama dan kehormatan serta tidak melakukan perbuatan-perbuatan yang dapat mendatangkan persangkaan buruk.
Kandungan Hadits di atas dapat kita jumpai di Al-Quran, yaitu:
Penetapan halal dan haram. Terdapat pada Surah Al Baqarah Ayat ke 275, Surah An Nahl Ayat ke 115, Surah Al Maa'idah ayat ke 87
Menghindari Syubhat. Terdapat pada Surah Al Hujuraat ayat ke 12
Kedudukan Hati. Terdapat pada Surah An Nahl Ayat ke 106, Surah Asy Syu'araa' Ayat ke 89, Surah Al Hajj Ayat ke 46.
Allah Maha Berkuasa. Terdapat pada Surah Al Maa'idah Ayat ke 40 dan Surah An Naas Ayat ke 2.

Referensi : 
Hadits Arba`in Nawawiyah karya Imam Abu Zakaria Yahya Bin Asyraf An-Nawawi
(Penerjemah Abdullah Haidhir dan Murajaah Dr. Muh. Mu`inudinillah Bashri dan Maerwandi Tarmizi)

Friday, August 10, 2012

Tutorial dasar pembuatan Objek 2 Dimensi By Achmad Muhajir

Sedikit berbicara mengenai postingan saya kali ini, saya akan men-share kepada anda semua mengenai teknik-teknik dalam penggunaan Autocad. Pada umumnya, software autocad ini digunakan oleh para ahli maupun mahasiswa yang memiliki latar belakang di bidang engineering. Hal tersebut dibutuhkan untuk mendesain sebuah bentuk baik itu alat/ device, rumah dengan arsitektur dan berbagai macam lainnya.

Kebetulan, saya kenal dengan teman saya yang bernama Achmad Muhajir ini dari satu kampus. Beliau kali ini akan memberikan tutorial mengenai Bagaimana Membuat Objek 2 Dimensi di Software Autocad 2012. Berikut Preview sederhana yang diberikan oleh Saudara ajir mengenai Pembuatan Objek 2 Dimensi:

Beberapa kasus pembuatan objek dalam AUTOCAD ada baiknya sebelum membuat objek secara 3D, kita membuat pratinjau secara 2D dari objek baik dari sisi depan, samping maupun atas.
Sebagai contoh sederhana untuk pembuatan gelas. Pratinjaunnya sebagai berikut :

dalam hal ini saya menggunakan AUTOCAD2011. Cara ini bisa juga digunakan pada AutoCAD 2010 dan 2012. Cara yang digunakan sangat sederhana namun membutuhkan kesabaran dalam mempelajari dan memahaminya.

-          Pastikan berada pada workspace 2D atau “2D drafting and annotation”.
 Buat persegi panjang dengan ukuran 6 x 7.5 (ukuran dapat berbeda sesuai dengan imajinasi teman-teman).  Agar lebih presisif, dapat mengaktifkan “snap mode”.

Pilih rectangular pada tab ribbon draw, atau bisa dengan mengetik RECTANG dan enter.

Masih Penasaran?
Silahkan saja download keseluruhan tutorial filenya (dalam bentuk pdf) di bagian download di bawah ini. Anda akan langsung diarahkan ke halaman dan tidak ada url yang rusak. Semoga bermanfaat bagi anda yang memerlukan tutorial ini.

Understanding of the various terms that we encounter in the field of political science

Adiparwa. The first part of the book of the Mahabharata, the epic about the battle between the family consisting of a family bharata Kauravas and the Pandavas. Book tells of his youth Adiparwa family Kauravas and the Pandavas, in addition contain other stories.
Adoption. Is one way of formal adoption by the legal process. The adoption process occurs when parents do not have offspring to take other people's children to be his own son to fulfill certain legal procedures. The adopted child will have the rights and obligations as a child of the truth, and also concerning the right to inheritance.

Aegyptus or Aigyptos. That is a term used for ancient king named an area called Egypt that has been mastered and is situated on the edge of nil own ends.
Affair. An event that usually involves acts of corruption, collusion and nepotism that occurs in the scope of government agencies. For example, what is known as Madiun Affair, an event of rebellion PKI (Indonesian Communist Party) in Madiun on September 18, 1948 that was led by Muso, which aims to replace the Pancasila state basis with communism, and are replacing President Soekarno by Muso himself. And in Indonesia that incident well-known as G30S/ PKI or in bahasa we called Gerakan 30 September 1965 Partai Komunis Indonesia/
The movement 30 September 1965 the Communist Party of Indonesia..

Affiliate. A term that means a merger between two different groups in a bond for the purposes of achieving the same goals.
AFNEI (Allied Forces Netherlands East Indies). That is a special command of Allied Command South East Asia formation. They were assigned in Indonesia for:
  • Accept the transfer of power from the hands of Japan.  
  • Freeing prisoners of war and internees allies.  
  • Disarm and collect the Japanese, and also arrange the return.  
  • Establish and maintain a peaceful state and then handed over to civilian authorities.  
  • Collect and prosecute war criminals. 
In performing its duties, AFNEI dipimpiin by Lieutenant-General Sir Philip Christinson. Nevertheless, the troops serving AFNEI only in Sumatra and Java, Indonesia while the rest of the army handed over Australia.

Afrika Korps. A military force is a combination of famous Italian and German during World War II, who in 1941 invaded Libya to support the Italian attack into Egypt. The troops under the command of Lieutenant-General Erwin Rommel. In mid-1942 when Rommel led back the attack, troops expanded and called panzerarmee Africa. 

Saturday, August 4, 2012

How to Claim Your Payment On Google Adsense from Western Union

Peace to us all. In this article I write articles about how to get Google Adsense payments channeled through western union. Coincidence, one week before I had a payment that has been provided by the Google Adsense to me, of course, through Western Union. After getting the information has been paid then we will be wondering how to withdraw it. Therefore now I will explain how to withdraw it, but before that let's discuss why it is better to use western union for payment in Google Adsense.

Western Union is a provider of financial services by providing services to consumers in the form of money transfer services worldwide. Western Union is a trusted company since the nineteenth century to the present in matters of money transfer services. Course for Google Adsense payment of affairs in what is an advantage for us? Here are some that we can take advantage of Google Adsense payment through Western Union:
  • Faster Delivery Service. In my experience using the payment through western union, can be said to be very satisfactory. How not, when payment is usually made ​​by the Parties to Google Adsense at the end of the month, but due to the transfer of money so fast it is approximately on the 25th of every month you have been sent and the next day you will be able to earn money through western union.
  • The Global Services Reach Service. Western Union is a global company with a reputation so that you can make payments in any country course through Western Union. 
  • Withholding money that is very friendly. If you use another payment in the Google Adsense is quite so difficult. Example by using the Check you will take a long time with large pieces when it cleared the bank. However, through Western Union is very easy, how much is paid in the Google Adsense will be paid as great as it gets. If you earn $ 100 is paid to you is also $ 100. However, western union services is limited only up to $ 8000 maximum.
  • You Have to remember the money holding. The money that has arrived at The Western Union only lasted for 2 months after the Payment Issued. If not taken the money will be forfeited and you do not receive payment.
Okay let's get to the procedures to be performed to obtain payment through western union and withdraw them. The things you should do is as follows:
  1. Once you get a minimum earning $ 100 or more and you see fit. You change the settings of payment through Western Union in your Google Adsense account and fill out an online form that has been written on it. Precisely in the sub-menu with Home-Payment-Payment Settings on your Account. 
  2. Then wait a few days. Check the end of each month if your income has been transferred to the western union by looking at later in the section Payment Finalized earnings and payments and then click on the detail.
  3. If you've paid it will display the words of a Payment Issued transaction payment. What is important here is the date of payment and transfer numbers, or better known in the form of western union Money Transfer Control Number (MTCN). If the date is known, then you can take western union payment on the next day Payment Issued on the date indicated.
  4. So the next day you can go to western union agents. happened in my country Indonesia, I pick it up at the main post office with the following conditions: 

  5. Statement Earning
    1. Carry ID cards and copy of identity.
    2. Bringing Money Transfer Information. To be easier, I suggest print the information. That is, when you check on the earnings and payments finalized later in the details you will get data about the shipment. Then click on the Print Statement Earning after that the data and take it to the Western Union.
    3. Fill out the form on the Western Union agent. Arriving there you will be asked to fill in the form of receipt of payment from Google Adsense, handing over the data that you have payment information along with the photo print copies of your identity.
    4. Then wait a while. Western Union parties will calculate the amount of your payments to pay your money in a currency in which you live foreign exchange rates based on Western Union.
    5. And You get your Money.
Apparently It's easy to take payment through Western Union. A few of my articles regarding the Withdrawal of money through Western Union may be useful for us all.


DMCA Protection