Sunday, July 29, 2012

Hadits Kelima Dalam Ajaran Islam

Arti hadits: Dari Ummul Mu`minin; Ummu Abdillah; Aisyah radhiallahuanha dia berkata: Rasullullah shallallahu`alaihi wa sallam bersabda: Siapa yang mengada-ada dalam urusan (agama) kami ini yang bukan (berasal) darinya, maka dia tertolak. (Riwayat bukhari dan Muslim), dalam riwayat muslim disebutkan: Siapa yang melakukan suatu perbuatan (ibadah) yang  bukan urusan (agama) kami, maka dia tertolak.
Yang dimaksud oleh hadits di atas adalah perbuatan-perbuatan yang dinilai ibadah tetapi tidak bersumber ajaran Islam dan tidak memiliki landasan yang jelas, atau yang lebih dikenal dengan istilah bid`ah.

Kandungan Hadits
  • Setiap perbuatan ibadah yang tidak bersandar pada dalil syar`i ditolak dari pelakunya.
  • Larangan dari perbuatan bid`ah yang buruk berdasarkan syari`at
  • Islam adalah agama yang berdasarkan ittiba' (yaitu mengikuti berdasarkan dalil) bukan ibtida' (mengada-adakan sesuatu tanpa dalil) dan Rasulullah Shallallahu`alaihi wa sallam telah berusaha menjaganya dari sikap yang berlebih-lebihan dan mengada-ada.
  • Agama Islam adalah agama yang sempurna dan ini telah dicantumkan dalam Alquran surah Al Maidah
Kandungan hadits diatas dapat dijumpai di Al-Quran yaitu, pada:

Kesempurnaan Islam. Terdapat pada Surah  Al Maidah Ayat Ke-3
Bid`ah dan Taklid. Tedapat pada Surah  Al Hadiid ayat ke-17 dan Surah Al Israa` ayat ke-6

Referensi : 
Hadits Arba`in Nawawiyah karya Imam Abu Zakaria Yahya Bin Asyraf An-Nawawi
(Penerjemah Abdullah Haidhir dan Murajaah Dr. Muh. Mu`inudinillah Bashri dan Maerwandi Tarmizi)

Friday, July 27, 2012

Theories created by western about the formation of world society

At first the theory is used to solve the social problems that arise in society itself. Since the time of Renaissance, precisely in the 16th century scholars who are influenced by the ideas of individualism that is trying to develop theories to answer or solve the problem of why human beings are born free to live separately and always found together.

It became a reference of the experts who engaged in the world community sociology. One thing we need to consider is why experts often take reference from the 16th century at which time the continent of Europe is experiencing a renaissance. Therefore, before we get into those theories let's review briefly what exactly was the renaissance.

Wikipedia on its website explaining that The renaissance era was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. Though the invention of printing sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe. As a cultural movement, it encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch, the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform. In politics the Renaissance contributed the development of the conventions of diplomacy, and in science an increased reliance on observation. Historians often argue this intellectual transformation was a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man". 

It is evident from the text comes from wikipedia explains that when the time of renaissance in Europe began there was a purpose for every person who lives to restore the cultures that used to be applied in continental Europe. History tells us that the Greco-Roman culture evolved and grew rapidly in continental Europe in the centuries before the middle. However, these developments put the thoughts of Europe only understand things that seem to eat it without analyzing. Logic that is growing very concerned that the culture is limited to what is seen, felt or touched / held.

What makes the nations of the European experience can not be separated from the Christian religion is very traditional so not to hit the developing science. Though religion and science are two different paths, but toward the same goal. Therefore, when Muslims in the Middle Ages to develop science and religion of the European continent at that time received what is called culture shock. Thus, the euro has decreased and even the culture that resulted in their differentiation into the Dark Ages or the Medieval era of Islam called or known as the Islamic Golden Age.

Well, back to our question about the theories of the formation of social communities have a relationship between two cultures that existed before. Thus, it would seem that when the following theories would seem the role of the two cultures, the Greco-Roman culture with Islamic culture. Here's the theory that I took from a book called Dr. Soedjono:

Social Contract Theory. This theory began in the 17th century when scholars such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Rousseau, and others influenced by the views of individualism that sparked the Renaissance put forward the theory known as the theory of agreement / social contract. This theory suggests that human beings are born free and then separately for the integrity of the man himself entered into an agreement or social contract to live together in a social life.

This means that in a situation when the people (individuals) with other people who want to live in peace and can grow quickly into a better direction then need a program called the agreement / social contract between individuals. Might result from the social contract is an arrangement that should be agreed together, and when broken should be given punishment. This allows each individual to do an interaction with others in order to live comfortably together.

Theory of Social Desire and Power merge. In the book I make reference is written that there is an opinion regarding the social meaning of life. The opinion came from Prof. P.J. Bouman which he wrote in his book Public Science. He argued that the intimate association between humans live together in certain ways by the desires of the individual community. For example there is a mutual desire of each individual to grow the economy at the local level that it will settle.

This equation is the reference Bouman in solving problems that separate human beings who are born in a society always found living together as united by their desires. Bouman even categorize the community desires it as follows:
  • Social aspiration.  
  • Sense of Self-Esteem. 
  • Intent To Comply. 
  • Intention of imitating someone. 
  • Socialize desire.  
  • Helping each other and the desire for sympathy. 
  • The desire to fight.  
  • Tells desire and a propensity to receive the effects.
Besides the community desires that already exist within every individual / human being, the theory presented by Bouman also was a force that combines these desires to form a social community. Bouman claimed the power to encourage and incorporate these desires known to power the merger are:
  • Leadership, authority and obedience.  
  • Rules or social norms.
Above two theories are theories that suggest that the formation of social communities based on the desire of man himself and the presence of a form of natural law (of course, comes from God through religion) that encourage people to interact. Cultures such as Greece, Rome and Islam are also encouraged to do the interaction of each individual to form communities that have a high civilization. 

1. Sosiologi work by Dr. Soedjono D., S.H.

Thursday, July 26, 2012

The methods commonly used in determining the elements in the polymer

When a compound is connected with the same compound is formed of a continuous chain that has certain characteristics. In a simple sense that I explain what is called the polymer. As has been mentioned in books written in general polymer as a polymer composed of long strands of each monomer binding to the monomer. The length of the string or chain can reach hundreds or even thousands of interconnected monomer. In its website, wikipedia writing A polymer is a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units. These sub-units are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. Although the term polymer is sometimes taken to refer to plastics, it actually encompasses a large class of compounds comprising both natural and synthetic materials with a wide variety of properties.

Image from Wikipedia
In the current technological developments, many experts in physics, chemistry and polymer material that is the future of materials that are easy to come by. So great expectation addressed to polymeric materials to you, I am curious as well as a lot of people. No wonder that many experts in physics, chemistry, and material has been doing various kinds of research in the field of polymer so that the polymer at the present time this is a category of commercial polymers, such as call it petroleum, plastic gutter pipe PVC, textile polymers, polymer electronics and various other types.

However, in this article we will discuss what is called the polymer but rather how the methods are generally made by people to determine the constituent elements of the polymer. Of course as we know, the formation of a polymer or polymer synthesis / polymerization reactions of polycondensation and polymerization, which is then divided into a variety of methods. Because there are so-called synthetic polymer which constituent elements must exist and how to identify these polymers. The following methods are commonly used by experts that I took from the book by Mr. Anton J. Hartomo:

Classical methods. By performing the cremation-gray, fusion, acid digest or acidification and digest the bomb to the polymer.

Image from
By using the cremation-gray method consists of several ways:
  • Cremation without catalytic substances. The process of cremation is done by burning the polymer in a platinum crucible with controlled conditions (as polymer), dissolved in an aqueous reagent, and then analyzed by spectrophotometry. This method is cumbersome and time consuming. Effectiveness of these elements can be different after that. Analysis of the alkali metal is more critical than on the transition metal catalyst.
  • Cremation with catalytic substances. The process of cremation is required where the elements are going to be analyzed may be lost when the process is carried out. For example, copper can be reduced and attached to the crucible wall. that is why it was added a solution of inorganic salts, for example magnesium nitrate. When the bulb, the said elements in a matrix of magnesium oxide awake so easily dissolved in a suitable acid and analyzed. The addition of inorganic salts and acids taken in the presence of organic solvent (alcohol) as appropriate.
  • At low temperatures the cremation furnace. The process is conducted in a furnace with air oxygen is activated by a cloud of electric charge or with ultraviolet light. Active oxygen to burn the polymer, and the risk of loss of the element being analyzed is smaller because the temperature is lower. Examples of use in the determination of rare metals in the polymer PP, PS and so on.
Then the fusion method can be performed using sodium carbonate, sodium bisulfate, and sodium peroxide. Of fusion with sodium carbonate is very good for the polymer which when in the incandescent-issued gas / vapor acids, such as PVC. Steam trap can be determined with a solid base in the reagent. Ash residue is dissolved in nitric acid, diluted acetone, potentiometric titration using standard silver nitrate.  

Digest method (Kjehldahl) acid. By using this method in addition to the determination of organic nitrogen, more or less the method is also used except in special cases. While oxygen to the combustion vessel used in the analysis of polymers such as the determination of sulfur in the polyolefin, determining chlorine in the rubber khlorobutil and PVC, phosphorus in polyolefins. 

Instrumental Methods of Engineering Analysis. This method is used to analyze the elements in the polymer consist of non-faulty techniques such as X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis, as well as destructive techniques (sample described with specific reagents) such as atomic absorption spectrometry, emission Spectrograph, flame photometry, polarography, and etc..
  • X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Analysis instrument was used for the determination of micro amounts of metal or non metal; also for the content of metals such as cadmium selenide pigments in polyolefins. The advantage lies in the technique that does not destroy the sample, making the specimen is easy, fast and the measurement of content of chemical elements do not depend on the state of incorporation. However, drawbacks include the excitation of many disorders other elements in the matrix polymer. This method is often applied to the determination of industrial elements chlorine, bromine, titanium, aluminum, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and vanadium on a hot plate of felt-PP and PE.
  • Neutron activation analysis. This analysis technique can determine the various elements such as chlorine in polyolefins, metals in PMMA, the total oxygen in the copolymer and the PE-vinyl acetate PE-ethyl acrylate as well as the polyolefin. This method is superior because it is very sensitive and hassle free. Disadvantage, must be made in nuclear reactors. However, the results are very good and reliable.
  • Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Often used for metal determination. Samples prepared in the form of an appropriate solution. Certain elements (As, Sb, Hg, Se, Sn) after the polymer has the digest, transformed into a hybrid form of gas using SnCl2 reagent or sodium borohydride.
  • Electron probe microanalysis. For this method is used to determine the metal inclusions in the polymer film and sheet. Samples were fired with a narrow beam of X-ray and electron scattering a certain frequency beyond scrutiny. Scattering image corresponding atomic number elements. X-ray beam emitted is detected and enumerated with a special tool or using the detector.
By using the above methods can be determined qualitatively or quantitatively, or in both the qualitative and quantitative elements of the polymer. The goal of science can be used both in order to identify the type of polymer that is not known or commercially in order to control the process. Both of the above techniques of classical technique and modern techniques that use instruments. For so this article, may be beneficial to us all. 
Penuntun Analisis Polimer Aktual work by Anton J. Hartomo. Penerbit Andi Offset Yogyakarta.  

Monday, July 23, 2012

Hadits Keempat dalam Ajaran Islam

Arti Hadits: Dari Abu Abdurrahman Abdullah bin Mas'ud radiallahuanhu beliau berkata: Rasulullah shallallahu'alaihi wa sallam menyampaikan kepada kami beliau adalah orang yang benar dibenarkan: Sesungguhnya setiap kalian dikumpulkan penciptaannya di perut ibunya sebagai setetes mani selama empat puluh hari, kemudian berubah menjadi setetes dara selama empat puluh hari, kemudian menjadi segumpal daging selama empat puluh hari. Kemudian diutus kepadanya seorang malaikat lalu ditiupkan padanya ruh dan dia diperintahkan untuk menetapkan empat perakara: menetapkan rizkinya, ajalnya, amalnya dan celaka atau bahagianya. Demi Allah yang tidak ada ilah selain-Nya, sesungguhnya di antara kalian ada yang melakukan perbuatan ahli syurga hingga jarak antara dirinya dan syurga tinggal sehasta akan tetapi telah ditetapkan baginya ketentuan, dia melakukan perbuatan ahli neraka maka masuklah dia ke dalam neraka. Sesungguhnya di antara kalian ada yang melakukan perbuatan ahli neraka hingga jarak antara dirinya dan neraka tinggal sehasta akan tetapi telah ditetapkan baginya ketentuan, dia melakukan perbuatan ahli syurga maka masuklah dia ke dalam syurga. (Riwayat Bukhari dan Muslim)
Kandungan Hadits:
  • Allah ta'ala mengetahui tentang keadaan makhluk-Nya sebelum mereka diciptakan dan apa yang akan mereka alami, termasuk masalah bahagia dan celaka.
  • Tidak mungkin bagi manusia di dunia ini untuk memutuskan bahwa dirinya masuk syurga atau neraka, akan tetapi amal perbuatan merupakan sebab untuk memasuki keduanya.
  • Amal perbuatan dinilai di akhirnya. Maka hendaklah manusia tidak terpedaya dengan kondisinya saat ini, justru harus selalu mohon kepada Allah agar diberi keteguhan dan akhir yang baik (Husnul Khotimah).
  • Disunnahkan bersumpah untuk mendatangkan kemantapan sebuah perkara dalam jiwa.
  • Tenang dalam masalah rizki dan qanaah (menerima) dengan mengambil sebab-sebab serta tidak terlalu mengejar-ngejarnya dan mencurahkan hati karenanya.
  • Sebagian ulama dan orang bijak berkata bahwa dijadikannya pertumbuhan janin manusia dalam kandungan secara berangsur-angsur adalah sebagai rasa belas kasih terhadap ibu. Karena sesunguhnya Allah mampu menciptakannya sekaligus.
Hadits di atas secara terperinci memberikan informasi kepada kita apa yang seharusnya dilakukan oleh setiap manusia di dunia dalam rangka beribadah kepada Allah SWT. 
Penjelasan hadits di atas juga menceritakan bagaimana seorang manusia itu diciptakan dari setetes air mani menjadi manusia yang utuh dan setelah itu memiliki tujuan yang telah diberikan oleh Allah SWT. Dan adanya sebuah pengorbanan yang harus dilakukan oleh seorang Ibu demi menjaga buah hatinya mulai masih berada di kandungan. Itu semua juga tidak terlepas dari pengorbanan yang dilakukan oleh sang Ayah. Oleh karena itu, hadits ini juga berkaitan dengan hal menghormati orang tua.
Kalau kita perhatikan pada kandungan hadits 2 poin terakhir menunjukkan bahwa, setiap manusia itu dilahirkan oleh manusia sebelumnya (Setelah Adam tercipta). Kelahiran dan kematian manusia itu dipermukaan bumi ditentukan oleh Allah SWT kecuali manusia tersebut menjaga kesehatan dan umurnya. Ditambahkan juga bahwa Allah telah mengatur semua yang diperlukan manusia di dalam hidupnya. Antara lain:
  1. Rezeki
  2. Ajal/ Kematian
  3. Amal
  4. Celaka dan Kebahagaian
Kandungan hadits di atas dapat kita jumpai di Al-quran, yaitu:
Pengorbanan seorang ibu yang mengandung. Terdapat pada Al Quran Surah Luqman ayat ke 14.
Teori Reproduksi manusia. Terdapat pada Al Quran surah Al Hajj ayat ke 5 dan Surah Al Mu`minuun ayat ke 14 
Takdir.  Terdapat pada Al Quran surah Al Hadid ayat ke 22 dan Surah At Thagaabun ayat ke 11
Husnul Khotimah. Terdapat pada Al Quran surah Al Baqarah ayat ke 132 dan Surah An Nisaa` ayat ke 18.
Referensi : 
Hadits Arba`in Nawawiyah karya Imam Abu Zakaria Yahya Bin Asyraf An-Nawawi
(Penerjemah Abdullah Haidhir dan Murajaah Dr. Muh. Mu`inudinillah Bashri dan Maerwandi Tarmizi)

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Istilah-istilah yang kita jumpai dalam bidang ilmu politik dan hukum

Abstain. Secara harafiah arti dari kata ini adalah tidak memberikan suara. Istilah Abstain biasanya dikaitkan dengan proses pemungutan suara untuk menentukan sesuatu kebijakan atau keputusan. Seseorang atau kelompok dikatakan abstain apabila seseorang atau kelompok tersebut tidak memberikan suara persetujuan terhadap keputusan yang akan diambil. Sikap abstain tidak juga berarti menolak keputusan tersebut, akan tetapi abstain lebih mendekati pengertian netral dan tidak memihak.

Academic Freedom. Secara umum digunakan untuk menunjukkan hak dari suatu lembaga pendidikan, khususnya perguruan tinggi atau universitas, atau lebih khusus lagi kepada staf pengajarnya untuk melaksanakan penelitian dan pengajaran, mengembangkan secara terbuka berbagai masalah secara ilmiah dan bertanggung jawab, mengembangkan dan pengarahan mahasiswa tanpa rasa takut terhadap hukuman ataupun sangsi-sangsi tertentu.

Acara Perdata. Peraturan hukum yang mengatur tentang bagaimana cara-cara memelihara dan mempertahankan hukum perdata material, atau peraturan hukum yang mengatur tentang cara-cara mengajukan sesuatu perkara perdata ke pengadilan perdata dan bagaimana hakim perdata akan menangani perkara yang bersangkutan.

Acara Pidana. Peraturan hukum yang mengatur tentang bagaimana cara-cara memelihara dan mempertahankan hukum pidana material, atau peraturan hukum yang mengatur tentang cara-cara mengajukan sesuatu perkara pidana ke muka pengadilan pidana dan bagaimana hakim pidana akan menangani perkara pidanan.

Accomodation. Bisa diartikan dalam dua pengertian, yaitu untuk menunjuk suatu keadaan dan untuk menunjuk suatu proses. Akomodasi yang menunjuk pada suatu keadaan, berarti suatu kenyataan adanya suatu keseimbangan (equilibrium) dalam interaksi antara orang-seorang dan kelompok-kelompok manusia, sehubungan dengan norma-norma sosial dan nilai-nilai sosial yang berlaku dalam masyarakat. Sedang akomodasi sebagai suatu proses adalah menunjuk pada usaha-usaha manusia untuk meredakan suatu ketegangan atau suatu usaha mencapai kestabilan.

Achieved Status. Memiliki arti kedudukan yang dicapai oleh seseorang dengan usaha-usahan yang disengaja. Kedudukan ini tidak diperoleh atas dasar kelahiran atau warisan, akan tetapi bersifat terbuka bagi siapa saja, tergantung kepada kemampuannya masing-masing dalam mengejar serta mencapai tujuan-tujuannya.

A Contrario, Penafsiran Hukum. Yaitu salah satu cara menafsirkan undang-undang yang didasarkan pada perlawanan pengertian antara permasalahan yang dihadapi dengan permasalahan yang telah diatur dalam salah satu pasal undang-undang. Penafsiran semacam ini dilakukan oleh karena permasalahan yang dihadapi tersebut tidak diatur secara tegas dalam salah pasal undang-undang yang ada. Sebagai salah satu contoh, di dalam pasal 34 KUHS ditentukan bahwa seorang perempuan tidak diperkenankan menikah lagi sebelum jangka waktu 300 hari setelah putusnya perkawinan terlampaui. Berdasarkan penafsiran A contrario sudah barang tentu pasal tersebut tidak berlakuk bagi seorang laki-laki.

Saturday, July 14, 2012

Hadits Ketiga dalam ajaran Islam

Arti Hadits:
Dari Abu Abdurrahman, Abdullah bin Umar bin Alh Khottob radiallahuanhuma dia berkata: Saya mendengar Rasulullah shallallahu`alaihi wa sallam bersabda: Islam dibangun di atas lima perkara; Bersaksi bahwa tiada ilah selain Allah dan bahwa nabi Muhammad utusan  Allah, menegakkan shalat, menunaikan zakat, melaksanakan haji dan puasa ramadhan. (Riwayat Turmuzi dan Muslim).
Hadits di atas menunjukkan tonggak-tonggak penyusun dari apa yang disebut dengan Islam. Ajaran Islam dibuat dengan dasar-dasar yang kuat. Tampak pada arti hadits di atas bahwa secara fundamental Islam dibangun atas lima perkara.

Kandungan Hadits:
  • Rasulullah shallallahu`alaihi wa sallam meng-analogikan Islam dengan bangunan yang kokoh dan tegak di atas tiang-tiang yang kuat.
  • Pernyataan tentang keesaan Allah SWT dan keberadaan-Nya, membenarkan kenabian Muhammad shallallahu`alaihi wa sallam, merupakan hal yang paling mendasar dibandingkan rukun-rukun yang lainnya.
  • Selalu menegakkan shalat dan menunaikannya secara sempurna dengan syarat rukunnya, adab-adabnya dan sunnah-sunnahnya agar dapat memberikan buahnya dalam diri seorang muslim yaitu meninggalkan perbuatan keji dan munkar karena shalat mencegah seseorang dari perbuatan keji dan munkar.
  • Wajibnya mengeluarkan zakat dari harta orang kaya yang sudah terpenuhi syarat-syarat zakat kemudian memberikannya kepada orang-orang fakir dan yang membutuhkan.
  • Wajibnya menunaikan ibadah haji dan puasa (Ramadhan) bagi setiap muslim.
  • Adanya keterkaitan rukun Islam satu sama lain. Siapa yang mengingkarinya maka dia bukan seorang muslim berdasarkan ijma`.
  • Nash di atas menunjukkan bahwa rukun Islam ada lima, dan masih banyak lagi perkara lain yang penting dalam Islam yang tidak ditunjukkan dalam hadits ini. Rasulullah shallallahu`alaihi wa sallam bersabda: "Iman itu memiliki tujuh puluh lebih cabang"
  • Islam adalah aqidah dan amal perbuatan. Tidak bermanfaat amal tanpa iman demikian juga tidak bermanfaat iman tanpa amal.
Hadits di atas secara umum membuat 5 perkara dalam fundamental Ajaran Islam. Kemudian secara umum Ajaran Islam lebih dikenal dengan rukun Islam, yaitu:
  1. Ber-syahadat 
  2. Menegakkan Shalat 5 Waktu
  3. Menunaikan Zakat
  4. Melaksanakan Puasa di Bulan Ramadhan
  5. Ber-Haji bagi yang mampu
Kandungan Hadits di atas dapat kita jumpai di Al-Quran, yaitu:
Wala` dan Bara` dalam syahadatain. Terdapat pada Surah Al Baqarah Ayat ke 256, Surah An Nahl Ayat ke 36.
Shalat. Terdapat pada Surah Al Baqarah Ayat ke 3, Surah Maryam Ayat ke 31, Surah Thaahaa Ayat ke 132.
Zakat. Terdapat pada Surah At Taubah Ayat ke 71, Surah Maryam Ayat ke 55, Surah Al Muzammil Ayat ke 20.
Haji. Terdapat pada Surah Ali `Imran Ayat ke 97, Surah Al Baqarah Ayat ke 196, Surah Al Hajj Ayat ke 27.
Puasa. Surah Al Baqarah Ayat ke 183 dan Ayat ke 185.

Referensi : 
Hadits Arba`in Nawawiyah karya Imam Abu Zakaria Yahya Bin Asyraf An-Nawawi
(Penerjemah Abdullah Haidhir dan Murajaah Dr. Muh. Mu`inudinillah Bashri dan Maerwandi Tarmizi)

Friday, July 13, 2012

Understanding and explanation of moral hazard within the scope of insurance

There's an interesting thing when I read a book called the fundamentals of insurance works of Drs. A. Salim Abbas. He wrote these words on his book ie morale and hazard. At first glance I thought what is the meaning of the word. Hazard is usually identical to the objects of toxic and dangerous. While morale is identical with the meaning of one's mental. However, after I read was very much different than what I thought. These include an explanation of the hazard as well as opening our initial conversation about the morale hazard within the scope of insurance.

Before entering what is the meaning and intent of the word morale hazard, let us first discuss in detail what the hazard. The technical term insurance, Peril, which means everything that could result in losses. While the hazard is a situation that adds to the possibility of peril, or hazard itself is a situation where it would boost the probability of losses stemming from peril. Hazard itself divided over:
  • Physical Hazard. That is a physical hazard and an element of objectivity. For example: physical damage due to fire, collision, and a wide range of events that can cause physical damage.
  • Morale Hazard. Hazard that is related to a person and contains a subjective element. For example, someone intentionally slammed car into a tree in order to receive compensation from the insurer.

Image from
In this article we will talk more about the morale hazard. If viewed as a physical hazard of understanding can we ingest because that name will provide warranty insurance to the insured when exposed to loss by accident, especially in terms of physical damage. So morale hazard would be more interesting because it brought about a lack of caution that will cause harm to it. For example, when we are on the way suddenly turned the other way and when it is driven by the vehicle will go faster and will result in an accident. Such action may result in losses for the insured. Due to the risk factor in the loss of morale hazard, the hazard insurance experts divide into two types of categories.

A. Personal Risk and Risk Families. 
Risks that exist on the scope of cloning and the family is a risk of loss of income and property. Loss of revenue due to the events that lead to loss of revenue that can cause life to be difficult because of the financial factor. While the objects usually belong to the property. These include:
Loss of income. A person or family could lose revenue due to:
  • Mortality. Loss of revenue caused the death of a person or family in particular.
  • Permanent disability. When a person experiences events that caused permanent disability then he will not be able again to find the optimal income due to disability or even expelled.
  • Temporary disability. For the time being unable to earn a living because of illness.
  • Unemployment. A person who is unemployed resulted in loss of income.
Property losses. Property loss is a loss that resulted in all the objects that become the property of a person or family becomes unusable. Milli constitutional rights can be caused by:
Natural disasters, fraud, forgery handwriting, Robbery and Theft, Impact melee.
B. Company risk.  
Of a risk accepted by the company with a different result. All these factors are capable of inflicting damage against the company as well known as morale hazard. Risks faced by the company consists of:

  1. Perils of transportation of goods on land-sea. Losses that occur during transport of goods on land or at sea. Generally covered by Marine Cargo Insurance. As for the ocean freight insurance identical to Marine Insurance.
  2. Hail (Hot Wind), Frost (low air) and other cases of damage to crops. Examples are found only in developed countries who have incomes in the plantation sector and agriculture. In the developing countries have not been very visible presence of the insurance field, it is no insurance agricultural insurance such as sugar cane.
  3. Dishonesty of employees. These losses are caused by company employees who may be deliberately doing things that are criminal to the company. such cases of corruption, ran the company money, and embezzlement.
  4. Failure to fulfill the contract. Contractor must meet a contract. If work is not finished on time then the company's request for compensation on insurance companies. Integration with insurance will pay a certain percentage.
  5. The strike, causing losses to the company. Losses incurred due to loss of income and property can be insured. For a person or family who run the risk of loss of income, can be reduced by insurance. Example:Mortality risk due to individual and family, people are trying to cover this risk by purchasing insurance.
  6. Incapable Permanently. It concludes with sickness or accident insurance. Similarly, the temporary disability may be covered by sickness insurance. Unemployment. In the event of unemployment insurance coverage is usually guaranteed by the State. This is a risk of government, in countries that have been developed. The property insured with insurance or public insurance.
So, morale hazard is a term that has a very long if we have described again by insurance factors. Morale hazard to the reference material in the insurance holders did transaction to satisfy the insurance is purchased.

Reference: Dasar-dasar Asuransi karya Drs. A. Abbas Salim

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